Home » Economic Indicators

Economic Indicators

Economic Indicators
« Back to Glossary Index

Economic indicators are important pieces of economic information used by analysts to understand investment opportunities and assess the health of an economy. They come in various forms and sizes, usually on a large scale, and help predict future economic trends. Some well-known indicators include the Consumer Price Index (CPI), gross domestic product (GDP), and unemployment rates. These indicators are released by government and non-profit organizations and are closely monitored by analysts and investors alike.

Types of Economic Indicators

Economic indicators are categorized into groups, each with a scheduled release time. This schedule allows investors to anticipate and plan for the release of economic information at specific times throughout the month and year.

Leading Indicators

Leading indicators are crucial in predicting future economic movements. They include indicators like the yield curve, consumer durables, net business formations, and share prices. These indicators change before the economy does, hence their name. However, it’s important to interpret their data cautiously since they can sometimes be inaccurate.

Investors are particularly interested in leading indicators because they can forecast future trends accurately. These indicators often make broad economic assumptions. For instance, many investors analyze forward-looking yield curves to anticipate how future interest rates might impact stock or bond performance. This analysis relies on historical data. Investors may assume that investments will perform similarly to how they did the last time the yield curve was in a certain position.

Coincident Indicators

Coincident indicators, such as GDP, employment levels, and retail sales, show what’s happening in the economy right now. They reflect specific economic activities and provide insights into a particular area or region. Policymakers and economists closely track this real-time data to understand the current situation and make informed decisions promptly.

For investors, coincident indicators may be less helpful because they reveal the ongoing economic situation rather than predicting future trends. These indicators inform investors about the present reality instead of forecasting. Thus, they’re most valuable to those who can interpret how current economic conditions, like a declining GDP, will affect the future.

Lagging Indicators

Lagging indicators, like gross national product (GNP), CPI, unemployment rates, and interest rates, reveal information only after specific economic activities have occurred. As the name suggests, these data sets indicate events that have already happened, making them trailing indicators that follow significant economic shifts.

One drawback of lagging indicators is that strategies based on them may come later than ideal. For instance, by the time the Federal Reserve interprets CPI data and decides on the best course of action to address inflation, the observed numbers might be somewhat outdated. While lagging indicators remain essential for many governments and institutions, they carry the risk of guiding incorrect decision-making due to mistaken assumptions about current economic conditions.

Interpreting Economic Indicators

Understanding economic indicators is crucial, but it’s important to interpret them correctly. One key indicator is GDP, which often reflects economic growth and corporate profit growth. However, relying solely on GDP to predict a company’s earnings growth is tough.

Indicators like interest rates, GDP, home sales, and others are vital. They show the cost of money, spending, investment, and overall economic activity.

Comparing economic indicators over time is valuable. For instance, governments track unemployment rates over five years to understand trends better. Looking at a single unemployment rate doesn’t give much insight, but comparing it to past rates does.

Many economic indicators have benchmarks set by government agencies or other entities. For example, the Federal Reserve aims for 2% inflation. They use measurements like CPI to achieve this goal. Benchmarks help analysts and policymakers assess whether an indicator’s value is good or poor.

The Stock Market As an Indicator

Leading indicators help predict where an economy is headed. One top indicator is the stock market. Since stock prices look ahead, they can give clues about the economy’s future if earnings estimates are correct.

A strong market suggests that earnings estimates are up, which could mean overall economic activity is increasing. Conversely, a declining market might mean that company earnings are expected to drop. However, relying solely on the stock market has its limits because the relationship between performance and estimates isn’t always reliable.

Stock prices can be manipulated by Wall Street traders and corporations. Manipulation tactics include inflating stock prices through high-volume trades, complex financial strategies, and creative accounting practices, both legal and illegal. The stock market is also prone to “bubbles,” which can mislead about the market’s direction.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Economic Indicators

Pros of Economic Indicators

Economic indicators use data to predict future trends. When analyzed correctly, investors can use this data to make successful trades or understand future market conditions.

They are often free and accessible to the public. Government-reported indicators follow a regular schedule and consistent measurement methods, providing reliability in calculation and release timing.

Cons of Economic Indicators

One drawback, especially with leading or coincident indicators, is their reliance on forecasting. While leading indicators project future trends, even coincident indicators make assumptions. They don’t always predict the future accurately, and actions based on them may not unfold as expected.

When reduced to a single number, economic indicators may oversimplify complex realities. For instance, the unemployment rate is influenced by various factors, from overall economic conditions to minor details like weather patterns. It may not fully capture all contributing factors.

Economic indicators are subject to interpretation. For example, a decrease in inflation from 4.6% to 4.5% could be seen as positive or insufficient. Economists and policymakers often differ in how they interpret economic data. Despite the concrete numbers, diverse interpretations can lead to vastly different conclusions.

Economic Indicators: Pros and Cons


  • Can accurately predict future trends based on current data.
  • Often rely on publicly available information.
  • Calculated using consistent processes, especially when issued by governments.
  • Released on a fixed, predictable schedule.


  • May not always accurately predict the future.
  • Rely on numerous assumptions, some of which may be unpredictable.
  • Subject to interpretation.
  • Still requires expertise to interpret and understand effectively.


What Is the Most Important Economic Indicator?

Every economist has their favorite way to measure how well an economy is doing. For a lot of them, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the top choice. GDP adds up to the value of all the goods and services made in a country during a specific time. It looks at how much people spend, what the government buys, and what’s traded in and out of the country.

Is Inflation an Economic Indicator?

Inflation is a type of indicator that comes after prices have already gone up. It’s like looking back at what happened. Governments use this data to decide on public policies. Without it, they wouldn’t know where the economy is heading. So, while inflation and other indicators that look back are important for investors, they’re especially crucial for planning what to do next in the future.

What Are the Economic Indicators of a Strong Economy?

A strong economy shows lots of economic activity and job growth. We can tell it’s strong when unemployment is low, inflation stays steady, construction increases, consumers feel good about spending, and GDP keeps going up.

Do Traders Use Economic Indicators?

Traders and investment experts often use economic indicators to guess how government policies might affect their trades or investment plans.


Economic indicators are numbers that come in three types: leading, coincident, or lagging. They show the general state of things. Indicators like GDP, unemployment rates, inflation, or specific prices help policymakers, people, businesses, and investors understand where the economy stands and where it might go. Governments use these indicators to shape policies, while investors use them to plan their investments.

Trade on the Go. Anywhere, Anytime

One of the world's largest forex brokers is ready for you. Enjoy competitive fees and dedicated customer support while trading securely. You'll also have access to their tools that make it easier than ever to view your trade history, copy trades, manage investments from other traders, view price charts, and make conversions with zero fees. Make an account for free and join millions of traders and investors on the global forex market.